Aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash followed by ion-chromatographic determination

Aleksandra M. Tasić, Ivana D. Sredović Ignjatović, Ljubiša M. Ignjatović, Danijel Đuranović, Mališa P. Antić


Three different techniques were applied for the aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash: rotary mixer- and ultrasonic-assisted extraction with different duration time, and microwave-assisted extraction at different temperatures. Validation showed that the ion-chromatographic method was suitable for the analysis of anions in coal and fly ash extracts. The variations in the amounts of anions using different extraction times during rotary-assisted extraction were minimal for all investigated anions. The efficiency of ultra­sound-assisted extraction of anions from coal depended on the sonication time and was highest at 30 min. The ultrasound-assisted extraction was less efficient for the extraction of anions from fly ash than rotary-assisted extraction. Inc­rease of temperature in the microwave-assisted extraction had a positive effect on the amounts of all anions extracted from coal and sulphate from fly ash, while the amounts of fluoride and chloride in fly ash extracts decreased. The microwave-assisted extraction of coal at 150 °C was compared with standard ASTM methods, and results were in good agreement only for chloride. Changes in the pH value and conductivity during ultrasound-assisted extraction were measured in order to explain changes on the surface of coal particles in contact with water and different processes that occur under environmental conditions.


coal; fly ash; anions; extraction; ion chromatography


S. Deng, Y. Shu, S. Li, G. Tian, J. Huang, F. Zhang, J. Hazard. Mater. 301 (2016) 400

N. Tsubouchi, H. Hayashi, A. Kawashima, M. Sato, N. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, Fuel 90 (2011) 376

B. Welz, F. G. Lepri, R. G. O. Araujo, S. L. C. Ferreira, M. D. Huang, M. Okruss, H. Becker-Ross, Anal. Chim. Acta 647 (2009) 137

J. Chen, G. Liu, Y. Kang, B. Wu, R. Sun, C. Zhou, D. Wu, Chemosphere 90 (2013) 1925

F. V. M. Pontes, B. A. de O. Mendes, E. M. F. Souza, F. N. Ferreira, L. I. D. Silva, M. C. Carneiro, M. I. C. Monteiro, M. D. de Almeida, A. A. Neto, D. S. Vaitsman, Anal. Chim. Acta 659 (2010) 55

A. V. Filgueiras, I. Lavilla, C. Bendicho, J. Environ. Monit. 4 (2002) 823

D. Banks, S. P. Burke, C. G. Gray, Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol. 30 (1997) 257

C. Monterroso, F. Macias, Sci. Total Environ. 216 (1998) 121

R. Iyer, J. Hazard. Mater. 4 (2002) 823

M. Bou-Raad, M. D. Hobday, C. J. Rix, Fuel 79 (2000) 1185

W. C. Godbeer, D. J. Swaine, F. Goodarzi, Fuel 73 (1994) 1291

J. L. Luque-García, M. D. Luque de Castro, Trends Anal. Chem. 22 (2003) 41

B. Ambedkar, T. N. Chintala, R. Nagarajan, S. Jayanti, Chem. Eng. Process. 50 (2011) 236

A. Ilander, A. Väisänen, Ultrason. Sonochem. 16 (2009) 763

N. Vuković, D. Životić, J. Graciano Mendonça Filho, T. Kravić-Stevović, M. Hámor-

-Vidó, J. de Oliveira Mendonça, K. Stojanović, Int. J. Coal Geol. 154–155 (2016) 213

W. H. Calkins, Fuel 73 (1994) 475

M. Savić Biserčić, L. Pezo, I. Sredović Ignjatović, Lj. Ignjatović, A. Savić, U. Jovanović, V. Andrić, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 81 (2016) 813

M. K. Reid, K. L. Spencer, L. Shotbolt, J. Soils Sediments 11 (2011) 518

ASTM D2361-02, Standard test method for chlorine in coal (Withdrawn 2008), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA

F. Low, L. Zhang, Talanta 101 (2012) 346

ASTM D3761-96, Standard test method for total fluorine in coal by the oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 1996

X. Gao, Y. Hu, C. Li, C. Dai, L. Li, X. Ou, Y. Wang, Sci. Total Environ. 545–546 (2016) 1

M. Golda, A. Janas, D. Olszewska, Fuel Process. Technol. 92 (2011) 1230

B. K. Saikia, A. M. Dutta, L. Saikia, S. Ahmed, B. P. Baruah, Fuel Process. Technol. 123 (2013) 107

J. Wang, A. Tomita, Energy Fuels 17 (2003) 954.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 J. Serb. Chem. Soc.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

IMPACT FACTOR 0.822 (131 of 166 journals)
5 Year Impact Factor 1.015 (118 of 166 journals)