Effect of nano- and micro-alumina fillers on some properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base composites

Fathie Kundie, Husnia Azhari, Zainal Ahmad

Abstract


This research investigated the effects of alumina (Al2O3) micro- and nanoparticles on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base. Al2O3 was surface treated using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS), added to methyl methacrylate (MMA), and mixed with PMMA powder. The filler volume fractions in the microcomposites were 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 7 wt%, whereas those in the nanocomposites were 0.13, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 wt%. The treated fillers were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of filler size and loading on mechanical properties was studied using fracture toughness and flexural tests. The thermal stability of the PMMA/Al2O3 composites was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the water absorption and solubility characteristic of the prepared composites was also investigated. The FTIR spectra showed new absorption bands, indicating the occurrence of surface modifications. Both micro- and nanoscale particles showed increased fracture toughness. The maximum value of 2.02 MPa·m1/2 was achieved with the addition of 0.5 wt% nano-Al2O3, which accounts for a 39% increase. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing filler content. The microcomposites showed higher thermal stability than nanocomposites. The water absorption and solubility of the prepared composites were slightly higher than those of the control. The use of low concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles may be of considerable interest in future studies to improve the mechanical properties of PMMA denture base.

Keywords


PMMA denture base; nanoparticles; mechanical properties; water absorption; water solubility; toughening mechanisms

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/JSC170118056K

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