Ligands containing 7-azaindole functionality for inner-sphere hydrogen bonding: Structural and photophysical investigations Scientific paper

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Alec Coles
Oskar Wood
Chris Hawes


The synthesis, structural analysis and spectroscopic characterisation of three new 7-azaindole ligands is reported, alongside a novel 7-azaindole der­ived coordination polymer, with the aim of identifying new bridging ligands containing inner-sphere hydrogen bond donor functionality. Structural charac­terisation shows that the 7-azaindole hydrogen bond donor ability is signific­antly stronger in the hydrazone and imine species 1 and 2 compared to the amine 3, with the opposite trend evident in their hydrogen bond acceptor char­acter. These findings are mirrored by the fluorescence spectroscopy results which show bimodal emission, characteristic of multiple emissive species rel­ated by proton transfer, is only evident in the amine species and not the more acidic imines. The polymeric copper(II) complex of the hydrazone ligand 1 shows the anticipated inner-sphere hydrogen bonding with a similar donor strength to that observed in the free ligand, which leads to deformation in the remainder of the coordination sphere. These results show the untapped vers­at­ility of the 7-azaindole functional group as a building block for ligands in coor­dination polymers and other multinuclear assemblies, with the potential for both stabilisation through hydrogen bonding and interesting photophysical properties.


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A. Coles, O. Wood, and C. Hawes, “Ligands containing 7-azaindole functionality for inner-sphere hydrogen bonding: Structural and photophysical investigations: Scientific paper”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 1223–1236 , Dec. 2023.
Theme issue honoring Professor Vukadin Leovac's 80th birthday

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