Electroless deposition of Fe-Ni alloys from acidic and alkaline solutions using hypophosphite as a reducing agent

Stojan Djokić, Željka Antić, Nada Djokić, Thomas Thundat


Deposition of Fe-Ni alloys from acidic and alkaline solutions using hypophosphite as a reducing agent is studied in this work. The experimental results confirm the autocatalytic nature of this process. The composition of alloys is practically independent of temperature of deposition. Fe-Ni alloys produced from acidic solutions contained less than 1% Fe. The amount of Fe in Fe-Ni alloys produced from alkaline solutions was estimated at about 15 %. Deposition of Fe-Ni alloys was significantly faster in the alkaline than in the acidic solutions, due to more pronounced hydrolysis of Fe(II) and Ni(II) ions under the alkaline conditions. The Fe-Ni alloys produced from both acidic and alkaline solutions contain phosphorus and as such exhibit an amorphous structure.


hydrolysis; chemical deposition; mechanism

Full Text:

PDF (1,625 kB)


A. Brenner, G. E. Riddell, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 37 (1946) 3134 (https://archive.org/details/jresv37n1p31)

S. S. Djokić, Electroless deposition of metals and alloys in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry,B. E. Conway, R. White and J.O’M Bockris, Ed.(s)., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA, 2002, p. 51 (https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47604-5_2)

S. S. Djokić, J. Electrochem. Soc. 144 (1997) 2358 (https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1837818)

O. Mallory, J. B. Hajdu, Electroless Plating: Fundamentals and Applications, AESFS, Orlando, Florida, USA, 1990 (https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/45703747)

D.W. Hall, J.A. Linholm, L.T. Romankiw, A.F. Schmeckenbecher, US Patent No. 3,702,263 (1972)

K. I. Popov, S. S. Djokić, N. Nikolić, V. Jović, Morphology of Electrochemically and Chemically Deposited Metals, Springer, New York, USA, 2016 (ISBN-13: 978-3319260716)

S. S. Djokić, Fundamentals of Electroless Deposition in Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, J. Reedijk, Ed., Elsevier, Waltham, MA, 2016 (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.11701-9)

S. S. Djokić, N.S. Djokić, J. Electrochem. Soc. 158 (2011) D204 (https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3548097)

S. S. Djokić, Production of Metallic Powders from Aqueous Solutions without an External Current Source in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry: Electrodeposition of Metal Powders from Aqueous Solutions, S. S. Djokić, Ed., Springer, New York, USA, 2012, p. 369 (ISBN 978-1-4614-2380-5)

C. F. Baes, R. E. Messmer, The Hydrolysis of Cations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1976 (https://doi.org/10.1002/bbpc.19770810252)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC190525069D

Copyright (c) 2019 J. Serb. Chem. Soc.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

IMPACT FACTOR 0.828 (140 of 172 journals)
5 Year Impact Factor 0.917 (140 of 172 journals)