Ecosystem carbon sustainability under different C-equivalence inputs and outputs in dry land

Asma Hassan, Rattan Lal, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz, Ayaz Mehmood


Efficient use of carbon (C) is principle goals of achieving agricultural and environmental sustainability. Thus, study was conducted to compare the C-equivalence (Ceq) of inputs and outputs and the C index of sustainability (Is). Five cropping sequences were; fallow–wheat (Triticum aestivum) (FW) (control), mungbean (Vigna radiata)–wheat (MW), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)–wheat (SW) green manure–wheat (GW) and mungbean-chickpea (Cicera rietinum) (MC). Tillage systems included moldboard 14 plough (MP), deep tillage (DT) and minimum tillage (MT). The primary data collected were crop yield and the above ground biomass. Fuel utilization in MP was 15.2 kg Ceq ha-1 with two ploughing per year, C input was 30.4 kg Ceq ha-1. In DT it was 11.6 kg Ceq ha-1. Herbicide used based input 27.3 kg Ceq ha-1.  The Ceq of outputs differed among tillage treatments, and were: 135kg Ceq ha-1, 112kg Ceq ha-1 and 80.47 kg Ceq ha-1 for MP, DT and MT, respectively. On the basis mean of two years, Ceq the highest grain Ceq was measured under MP and under SW in winter (1040 kg Ceq ha-1). The maximum Ceq biomass was estimated in winter with MC (2867 kg Ceq ha-1). However, the highest root Ceq under MT was calculated in winter with MW (9500 kg Ceq ha-1). Under MT, the maximum Iswas obtained with MC for both year in summer (77 and 130). In winter of the second year, the highest Iswas estimated for FW (82). These results showed that the efficient use of fertilizers, herbicides and farm machinery in the field under MT with legume based cropping system could be the best options to enhance the carbon Is in dry lands.


C use efficiency; index of sustainability; C-equivalence inputs; C-equivalence outputs

Full Text:

PDF (1,496 kB)


J. M. Kimble, R. Lal, R. F. Follett, in: Assessment methods for soil carbon. Advances in Soil Science, R. Lal., J. M. Kimble, B. Follett, (Eds.), CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001, p. 12

IPCC, Land use, land-use change, and forestry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000

R. Lal, Environ. Int. 30 (2004) 981

S. K. Rose, B.A. McCarl, Choices 23 (2008) 15

M., S Upendra, W. L. Andrew, C. T. Thecan, D. J Jalal, T. L. Robert, R G.E. Orbet, L.A. Brett, Open J. Soil Sci. 2 (2008) 242

J. G. Canadell, C. Le Quéré, M. R. Raupach, C. B. Field, E. T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, N. P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, Proc. Int. Acad. Sci. 104 (2007) 18866

D. Carrington, Global carbon dioxide in atmosphere passes milestone level. The Guardian, [online] (2013)

T. O. West, G. Marland, A. W. King, W. M. Post, A. K. Jain, K. Andrasko, Environ. Manage. 33 (2004)507

Dubey, A. R. Lal, J. Crop Improv. 23 (2009) 332

K. Paustian, J. Six, E. Elliott, H. Hunt, Biol. Geol. Chem. 48 (2000) 147

T. West, G. Marland, Environ. Pollut. 116 (2002) 439

T. Aslam, M. Choudhary, S. Saggar, Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 77 (2000) 257

S. Malhi, R. Lemke, Soil Till. Res. 96 (2007) 269

S. L. Choudrie, G. Tlethwaite, UK greenhouse gas inventory, 1990–2006. Annual report for submission under the framework convention on climate change, AEA Group, Oxfordshire, 2008

P. R. Adler, S. D. Grosso, W. J. Parton, Applied Ecol. 17 (2007) 675

S. St. Clair, J. Hillier, P. Smith, Biomass Bioenergy 32 (2008) 442

R. A. Gill, H. W. Polley, H. B. Johnson, L. J. Anderson, H. Maherali, R. B. Jackson, Nature 417 (2002) 279

S. M. T. A. Adi, Trends Agric. Ecol. 1 (2008) 14

C. Gupta, S. S. Srivastava, R. Singh, S. Chaudhari, D. Sharma, S. Singh, D. Sarkar, Soil Till. Res. 136 (2014) 76

G. Squire, S. Rodger, G. Wright, Ann. Appl. Biol. 136 (2000) 47

R. A. Robinson, W. J. Sutherland, J. Appl. Ecol. 39 (2002) 157

E. Marshall, V. Brown, N. Boatman, P. Lutman, G. Squire L. Ward, Weed Res. 43 (2003) 77

P. Newell, M. Paterson, Biomass Biol. Energy 32 (2010) 442

G. Bridge, Prog. Hum. Geogr. 35 (2011) 820

A. Bumpus, D. Liverman, Global Polit. Econ. (2010) 203

H. Lovell, D. Liverman, New Polit. Econ. 15 (2010) 255

C. Le Quéré, R. J. Andres, T. Boden, T. Conway, R. A. Houghton, J. House, The global carbon budget 1959–2011. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss. 5.2 (2012) 1107

R. Lal, Science 304 (2007) 1623

Goverment of Pakistan, Soil Series Key and Soil Classification. Soil Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Lahore. 1974. p. 133

N. H. Koga, Tsuruta, H. Tsuji, H. Nakanoa, Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 99 (2003) 213

D. Foster, F. Swanson, J. Aber, I. Burke, N. Brokaw, D. Tilman, A. Knapp. Biol. Sci. 53 (2003) 77

M. Bolinder, H. Janzen, E. Gregorich, D. Angers, A. B. Vanden, Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 118 (2007) 29

J. D. Williams, D. K. McCool, C. L. Reardon, C. L. Douglas, S. L. Albrecht, R. W. Rickman, J. Soil Water Conserv. 68 (2013) 349

U. R. Sangakkara, P. Stamp, A. Soldati, M. Liedgens, J. Agron. 19 (2002) 225

C. F. Lacerda, J. Cambraia, C. Mao, J. T. Prisco, M. A. Olivia, Rev. Cien. Agron. 37 (2006) 110

S. B. Ramos, J. M. Barriuso, D. L. L Pereyra, J. Domenech, F. J. M. Gutierrez, Phytopathol. 98 (2008) 451

N. Bahavar, A, Ebadi, A. Tobeh, E.S. Jamaati. Soil Res. J. Environ. Sci. 3 (2009) 332

N. E. Collins, L. J. Kimble, T. H. Williams, in: Agriculture and Energy, W. Lockeretz (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1976, pp. 233–236

W. Lockeretz, Soil Water Conserv. 38 (1983) 207

B. A. Stout, in: Energy use and Management in Agriculture, M. A. Breton (Ed.), North Scituate, MA, 1984

C. G. Bowers, Trans. ASAE 32 (1989) 1492

K. N. Ferreira, T. M. Iverson, K. Maghlaoui, J. Barber, S. Iwata, Science 303 (2004) 1831

Y. Kuzyakov, G. Domanski, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 163 (2000) 421

M. R. Hoosbeek, Y. G. Li, Scarascia, E. Mugnozza, Plant Soil. 281 (2006) 247

R. P. Phillips, I. C. Meier, E. S. Bernhardt, A. S. Grandy, K. Wickings A. C. Finzi, Ecology 15 (2012) 1042.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 J. Serb. Chem. Soc.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

IMPACT FACTOR 0.822 (131 of 166 journals)
5 Year Impact Factor 1.015 (118 of 166 journals)