Comparison of sequential and single extraction in order to estimate environmental impact of metals from fly ash

Aleksandra Tasić, Ivana Sredović Ignjatović, Ljubiša Ignjatović, Marija Ilić, Mališa Antić


The aim of this paper is to simulate leaching of metals from fly ash in different environmental conditions using ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction techniques. Single-agent extraction and sequential extraction pro­cedures were used to determine the levels of different metals leaching. The concentration of metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, As and Be) in fly ash extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Single-agent extractions of metals were conducted at sonication times of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. Single-agent extraction with deionized water was also performed by exposing samples to microwave radiation at tem­pe­rature of 50 °C. The sequential extraction was conducted according to the BCR procedure which was modified and applied to study the partitioning of metals in coal fly ash. The microwave-assisted sequential extraction was per­formed at different extraction temperatures: 50, 100 and 150 °C. The partition­ing of metals between the individual fractions was investigated and discussed. The efficiency of the extraction process for each step was examined.  In addi­tion, the results of the microwave-assisted sequential extraction are compared to the results obtained by standard ASTM method. The mobility of most elements contained in the fly ash is markedly pH sensitive.


coal fly ash; single-agent extraction; sequential extraction; microwaves; ultrawaves


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