Hydroxyapatite/nifuroxazide conjugate: Characterization, drug release and antimicrobial activity Scientific paper

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Željko Radovanović
Katarina Mihajlovski
Lidija Radovanović
Đorđe Janaćković
Rada Petrović


Synthetic hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) is very similar to the inorganic part of the bones and teeth of mammals. It is a well-known bio­material with good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and bioactivity. Nifur­oxazide (C12H9N3O5, NFX) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug and poorly soluble in water. In order to increase the solubility of NFX, nano-sized HAp powder and raw NFX drug were mixed giving, as a result, a HAp/NFX con­ju­gate. Characterization of the raw materials and the obtained conjugate con­firmed the integration of NFX on the HAp surface. An in vitro study of drug release in simulated stomach acid and intestinal fluid showed a much faster release of NFX from HAp surface than those of the raw drug. The HAp/NFX conjugate showed excellent inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast Candida albicans, proving the nano-sized HAp powder as a pro­mising drug carrier.


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Željko Radovanović, K. Mihajlovski, L. Radovanović, Đorđe Janaćković, and R. Petrović, “Hydroxyapatite/nifuroxazide conjugate: Characterization, drug release and antimicrobial activity: Scientific paper”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 1103–1112, Nov. 2021.


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